Salmonella Dogs Symptoms
Salmonellosis is an infection found in dogs caused by the Salmonella bacterium. It often leads to disorders, including gastroenteritis, spontaneous abortions, and septicemia. This bacterial disease is also zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted to humans.
Salmonella Dogs Symptoms
Risk factors include the dog's age, with younger and older animals most at risk due to their underdeveloped and/or compromised immune systems. Similarly, dogs with weak immune systems or immature gastrointestinal tracts are at risk.
Unfortunately, a dog infected with the bacteria will typically not show any clinical symptoms. However, some dogs do have gastroenteritis, a disease affecting the gastrointestinal system that presents with an inability to eat, general poor health and fatigue, depression, and a chronic fever that may stay as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit.
Your veterinarian may want to also rule out other conditions that can result in similar symptoms, including parasites, dietary-induced stress (including allergy or food intolerances), drug or toxin-induced stresses, and diseases like viral gastroenteritis or bacterial gastroenteritis caused by E. Coli or other common bacteria.
They are a few antimicrobials available to your veterinarian that may be used for treating dogs with salmonellosis. Glucocorticoids, a form of adrenal or steroid hormone, may also help to prevent shock in dogs with severe salmonellosis.
Salmonella is a group of gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella is mainly an intestinal pathogen, but can also cause systemic disease and can then be isolated from blood and various organs. The bacteria may also be carried by dogs without symptoms.
Infection can be transmitted directly between infected animals and between animals and humans. Salmonella spreads mainly through faeces from infected individuals and infects new individuals via the mouth. Dogs can become infected through contaminated food and contaminated water. International veterinary publications indicate the feeding of raw meat as the most common route of transmission in dogs. Particularly North America has reported salmonella infections in competing greyhounds and working sled dogs fed with raw animal products.
Cats usually become infected during late winter and early spring, after catching and eating birds (such as passerines) infected with salmonella. Dead or live birds as well as bird droppings may be a source of infection both for cats and dogs. Clinical salmonella infection in dogs is rare. Only a few cases in dogs are reported annually in Sweden.
Several different virulence mechanisms have been identified in salmonella bacteria and the pathogenicity may vary between different serotypes. Pathogenesis studies performed in dogs are missing, but studies in other animals have shown that Salmonella spp. can attach to and invade intestinal epithelial cells and thereby cause inflammatory enteritis with subsequent secretory diarrhoea and/or systemic infection. In most cases, the infection is localized exclusively to the intestine, but sometimes a translocation of bacteria occurs and a bacteraemia or sepsis develops. Systemic infection may also develop without previous gastrointestinal symptoms.
Salmonella may persist for a long time after the initial infection, in intestinal epithelia and lymph nodes. Faecal excretion may be continuous during the first week and then become intermittent. The period of excretion is usually 3-6 weeks but there are occasional reports of longer excretion time. Up to 117 days have been reported after experimental infections in dogs.
The severity of clinical symptoms in infected dogs vary depending on virulence factors of the infecting salmonella strain, the infection dose, the animals immune status and any coexisting conditions. Subclinical infections without symptoms occur.
Acute gastroenteritis is the most common symptom in clinical salmonella infection in dogs. Fever, nausea, anorexia followed by vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea can be seen. Diarrhoea may vary in degree and consistency; sometimes it can also contain blood. Weight loss is most likely a result of fluid loss. Infections that are more serious may lead to sepsis, shock, and possibly death. Subsequent bacteraemia can cause infection in other organs such as pneumonia. Systemic infection can occur in animals with no gastrointestinal symptoms.Infection in the uterus during pregnancy may lead to abortion or the birth of weak or dead puppies.
There is always a risk of false negative results since salmonella can be excreted intermittently, particularly in the later stages of infection. The highest probability of finding salmonella in faeces is by sampling in the acute stage of the disease.
Supportive treatment is usually sufficient in acute uncomplicated salmonella infection. Rehydration with adequate supply of fluids and continuous compensation of fluid losses due to vomiting and diarrhoea is important. Antibiotics are not indicated except as a supportive treatment during a short time for life threatening symptoms, shock, and in case of sepsis. Antibiotic treatment may prolong the period of faecal excretion. The risk of selecting for antibiotic resistant strains should also be considered.
Although infection with salmonella is uncommon in dogs in Sweden, one should bear in mind that dogs, like humans, can become infected through contaminated food. To feed dogs raw or inadequately heated animal products may pose a risk of infection. Like cats, dogs may also become infected from infected birds and bird tables and such exposure should be avoided.
Good hand hygiene is always important in order to avoid salmonella infection, especially when cooking and eating, and people often become infected by contaminated food. Hands should be washed thoroughly after handling the sick dog, and cleaning up any vomit or diarrhoea. When walking the dog, faeces should be picked up to minimize contamination of the environment. Always wash your hands afterwards. Wash the dogs dishes separately with a dish brush that is not used for other things.
If there are other pets in the household extra careful hygiene should prevail for all as long as there is an infected dog in the household. This applies even if the other animals do not show any symptoms.
Dogs who have contracted salmonellosis may be an asymptomatic carrier or may exhibit a range of symptoms, depending on the severity of the infection. A dog that has salmonellosis will most likely begin showing symptoms within the first 72 hours of being infected. These signs include:
Salmonellosis is caused by the salmonella bacteria, which is found in raw or undercooked meat. The organism can be transmitted through contaminated food or through the feces or saliva of an infected animal. Most dogs contract the disease when they consume contaminated food, such as raw eggs, recalled pet food, and unrefrigerated wet food. Infected dogs can shed the bacteria in their feces and saliva for prolonged periods of time after infection.
If your dog is behaving strangely, has a fever, or is vomiting and having consistent diarrhea, visit the veterinarian immediately. Bring a fresh stool sample. Salmonellosis shares symptoms with other conditions, such as gastroenteritis, parasites, or food allergies, and the veterinarian will need to run a series of tests to identify salmonellosis as the cause.
The veterinarian will take a history of your dog and will ask for a list of exhibited symptoms. If your dog has consumed raw meat or eggs or recalled pet food, or if he or she has been in contact with potentially infected birds, let the veterinarian know. The veterinarian will take urine and fecal samples for laboratory testing, which will help rule out other conditions and identify the salmonella bacteria specifically. In severe cases, or in the event of sepsis, blood cultures may be required.
Most mild cases of salmonellosis can be treated at home. Treatment for a salmonella infection is primarily supportive, with a focus on ensuring that your dog receives enough fluids during the recovery process. Provide a steady supply of clean, fresh water, and make sure that your dog is staying hydrated to compensate for the fluid lost through vomiting and diarrhea. Depending on the extent of the infection, the veterinarian may prescribe antibiotics to help fight the salmonella bacteria or prevent shock.
In more severe cases of salmonellosis, your dog may need to be hospitalized. Dogs that are severely dehydrated may require IV fluid therapy as part of treatment, and those that have developed a blood infection or sepsis may need a plasma or blood transfusion. In the majority of cases, prognosis is good, and adult animals that are otherwise in good health typically recover fully from the infection. The results may be less favorable for dogs that have developed sepsis.
Children under 5, pregnant women, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems (such as those with cancer or other diseases) have a higher risk of getting salmonellosis and are more likely to have severe symptoms.
When the disease is seen in an adult dog or cat, the animal typically has another infection or health problem at the same time. Puppies and kittens are more likely to show signs of disease. Signs of salmonellosis in dogs and cats include:
In most dogs who develop symptoms, providing your dog with plenty of fluid will be enough to help him and his immune system fight off the infection on his own. However, there are severe cases where salmonella can spread throughout the body, causing sepsis, shock, and even death. These severe cases are best treated by a veterinarian.
Infection caused by salmonella is known as salmonellosis. The condition is somewhat common in humans, with approximately 40,000 cases of salmonellosis reported in the United States every year. According to CDC reports, most human salmonella outbreaks are linked to peanut butter, Italian meats, pets like bearded dragons or turtles, or backyard chickens. 041b061a72